The new Scale series provides practical tools for architects and students of architecture. /P P Each volume analyses the construction process from the first design idea to the call for bids, covering the fundamental design principles and concrete details. The series title, Scale, signifies that the perfect detail is the result of a process through various levels of conception and design, from the abstract to the particular. /P P Although the focus is on communicating hands-on constructional know-how, Scale s innovative presentation does not just simply show solutions, but demonstrates how to develop them. /P P Each volume presents essential information for design and implementation, from the first sketches to details of connectors in a scale of 1:10. Consistency in the plans and drawings, clear hierarchies in the headings and structure, and a clear, easily readable layout with helpful captions simplify the search for specific information, and make Scale volumes ideal for quick, targeted consultation. /P P Scale is conceived as a series of practical textbooks which can be used independently of each other, but also supplement and build on each other to constitute a reference work on construction design. /P P Designing and Constructing openings /P P The first volume of the SCALE series Open close examines a simple but effective building element, the Opening, illuminating the path from idea to realization in its various facets. /P P The concept of Open Close includes not only elements such as windows, doors, gates, loggias and skylights, which communicate between exterior and interior space, but also the structure of the building itself. Because Openings define and determine the relationship of the building to public space, they also determine the character of the site.